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Red Cloud - 1822-1909 - Oglala Sioux leader. - Move mouse pointer over name to see comment.
Red Cloud


Geronimo - 1829-1909 - Apache leader. - Move mouse pointer over name to see comment.


Sitting Bull - 1834-1890 - Hunkpapa Sioux leader. - Move mouse pointer over name to see comment.
Sitting Bull


Chief Joseph - Move mouse pointer over name to see quote.
Chief Joseph


Favorite Natives


Favorite Native Music



Woods to left of smokeSmokin'!Woods to right of smoke
Not secure as of 2019-08-17. - Learn about the Nebraska Indian Affairs office.

Each of the Pow Wow info blocks below are displayed for approximately 45 days prior and throughout the event. Some larger events with websites are displayed much earlier to help with vacation planning (as much as 210 days). Each event is outlined in a box. Some events have two different colored border lines. The color of the outermost border indicates whether there is a web address for the event. The box color will be either Gold or Red. Gold is for events that have a web site. Red indicates there is no web site, so you cannot click the details to get more information. For those that do, the text and link is in lilac color, with the Gold border; the others are in light blue, with a Red border.  If the event has two border lines, the inner box line color provides more information. An additional green dashed border inside indicates the event has been canceled. An event may also be postponed. In this case, the color is a solid green color. It may be postponed for the year, or it may be rescheduled for a later date in the same year.  Occasionally, an event comes to an end permanently, although we may not have the information that informs us that is the case. For each year, each event has to be confirmed to ensure the dates are correct. If we cannot locate information that confirms an event is still going on three years in a row, there is a good change the event has ended permanently but we do not know about its demise. In that case, the inner box color will be Indian Red. You should take this into consideration if you are planning to attend one of these events.



2020 South Dakota University Annual Wacipi
(Fourth Saturday of March)
Unconfirmed (but based on
Fourth Saturday of March rule):

March 28, 2020
(was 1 day ago)

SDSU Campus University Student Union, Volstorff Ballroom,
110 Student Union Land
Brookings, SD 57007

(Google Maps and Satellite maps logo)
Morgan Catlett-Ausborn at 605-688-5263
SDSU American Indian Education & Cultural Center at 605-688-6416


48th Annual USD Wacipi - Contest
(Second weekend in April)
Unconfirmed (but based on
Second weekend in April rule):

Saturday, Sunday
April 11-12, 2020
(in 13 days)

USD Sanford Coyote Sports Center
Vermillion, SD 57069

(Google Maps and Satellite maps logo)
Facilities at 605-677-6389
Student Services at 605-677-3167
General at 605-677-6875

2020 Sioux Falls Indigenous New Year Celebration
(Second Saturday of April)
Unconfirmed (but based on
Second Saturday of April rule):

April 11, 2020
(in 13 days)

Multi-Cultural Center of Sioux Falls
515 N Main Ave.
Sioux Falls, SD

(Google Maps and Satellite maps logo)
Theresa Henry at 605-355-2544

30th Annual Washington University Powwow
(Third Weekend of April)
April 18, 2020
(in 20 days)

Buder Center for American Indian Studies
330 N. Big Bend Blvd
Clayton, MO 63105

(Google Maps and Satellite maps logo)



Vásquez's attack on North American Natives


Starting in Mexico, Francisco Vásquez de Coronado* entered what is now the United States near the bend at the bottom edge of Arizona.  Vásquez along with around 100 men* headed north ahead of the others.  Encountering several villages of small and medium size, Vásquez was sure Cibola existed further north.  Reaching the pueblo villages of Hawikuh and Halona (now Zuni, New Mexico), Vásquez felt the Cibola he searched for had been found.  The people resisted and fought back with fervor.  Undaunted, Vásquez's army powered with crossbows proved their superiority over the bow and arrow, continuing to fight until he overpowered the village.  In the aftermath, the gold he sought was not there.

Based on rumors of the riches at the Kingdom of Tequayo, Vásquez followed the Rio Grande to the east.  Instead of a kingdom, Vásquez found the mud villages of the Tewa natives.  Frustrated by not discovering the riches he hoped for, Vásquez camped out while sending out excursions in all directions.  To the north, Cicuye To the south, Albuquerque.  Areas around Albuquerque and as far as the Grand Canyon were searched for the fabled riches without luck.

To the northeast of Albuquerque, Vásquez came to the Kuauna pueblo near Bernalillo, a pueblo village having more than 1,100 rooms.  Angered by resistance, Vásquez killed and took prisoners.  Still no riches.

Survivors hid waiting for Vásquez to leave the area.  It is said that around this time, one of the prisoners let it be known that he knew of a place where the riches did exist called Quivara  Some speculate it was a plot to lead Vásquez away.

The expedition entered Texas to the pueblo of Floydada, where another battle ensued.  At the end of the battle, still no gold.  At this point, Vásquez was frustrated, his troops tired.  It was clear that 2,000 troops weren't needed to overcome such small odds.  All but around 30 were sent back to Mexico as Vásquez, the prisoner, and the others headed north, theoretically now in search of Quivara.

The exploration crossed over into Oklahoma approximately at the north east corner of the top of the rectangle, continuing north over the thin strip of Oklahoma into Kansas.

After entering into Kansas, Vásquez visited the areas around Liberal, and on to Lyons without any gold or riches.

The prisoner's fabled Quivira story was looking thin.  His purpose served and seeing the end, he admitted the charade and paid the ultimate price.

Vásquez traveled further to verify the rumors were in prophecy only before returning back along an almost identical path back into Mexico.  It has been speculated that Vásquez may have reached Nebraska, however, there is little evidence to support the claims.  Vásquez's steps were traceable, the exploration left evidence all along the way.  At every battle encounter, the evidence continues to be uncovered 478 years later.

In the end, Vásquez's encounters were no different than his predecessors in the southwest.  Even though the mountain of gold was not discovered, the golden Midwest was.

Additional Reading  Back to the top of this page.

Both Liberal and Lyons, Kansas have Vásquez de Coronado museums.

Coronado National Memorial in Arizona
Coronado State Memorial in New Mexico

Continue Reading  Back to the top of this page.

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