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"Gate City"
"Quiet place above all others upon a stream*"

Tip: Return to your last location
Tip: Return to your last location

Red Cloud - 1822-1909 - Oglala Sioux leader. - Move mouse pointer over name to see comment.
Red Cloud

 

Geronimo - 1829-1909 - Apache leader. - Move mouse pointer over name to see comment.
Geronimo

 

Sitting Bull - 1834-1890 - Hunkpapa Sioux leader. - Move mouse pointer over name to see comment.
Sitting Bull

 

Chief Joseph - Move mouse pointer over name to see quote.
Chief Joseph

 

Favorite Natives

   ChiefDanGeorge
   WillSampson
   RussellMeans

Favorite Native Music

   Blackfoot
   Brule
   Indigenous
   Jana

Famous Natives

   Bob Annesley
   Apesanahkwat
   Chrispus Attucks
   Spencer Asah
   James Auchiah
   Getrude Simmons Bonnin - 1875-1938
   Philip "Yogie" Bread
   Richmond Branscombe
   Barney Bush
   Black Bear Francis Bosin
   Big Eyes
   Big Foot
   Black Hawk
   Ben Nighthorse Campbell
   Buffy Saint Marie
   Tantoo Cardinal
   Eddie Clearwater
   Cochise
   Joseph "Jocko" Clark
   Crazy Horse
   Woodrow "Woody" Wilson Crumbo
   Charles Curtis
   Alice Brown Davis
   Gary Paul 'Litefoot' Davis
   Dekinawida
   Vane Degloria, Jr.
   Wilfred F. Denetclaw, Jr.
   Mario Dorian
   Dull Knife
   Gary D. Fife
   Tim Giago
   Geronimo
   Judy Gobert
   Rodney A. Grant
   Saginaw Grant
   Graham Greene II
   Michael S. Haney
   Ira Hamilton Hayes
   Hiwatha
   Jack Hokeah
   Ishi
   Chief Joseph
   Katlian
   Edmonia Lewis
   Marigold Linton
   Little Raven
   Linda Redfearn
   Little Wolf
   Dren Lyons
   Stephen Mopope
   Wilma Pearl Mankiller
   Juana Maria
   Maria Montoya Martinez
   Massasoit
   Marion Meadows
   D'Arcy McNickle
   Billy Mills
   N. Scott Momaday
   Carlos Montezuma
   R. Carlos Nakai
   Mato Nanji
   Nana
   Doc Tate Nevaquaya
   Richard Oakes
   Ouray
   Ely Samuel Parker
   Maria Pearson
   Leonard Peltier
   Elizabeth Jean Wanamaker Peratrovich
   Susan La Flesche Picotte
   Pocahontas
   Chief Pontiac
   Alfred H. Qoyawayma
   Red Cloud
   Allie P. Reynolds
   Burt Reynolds
   Robbie Robertson
   William Penn Adair Rogers
   Roman Nose
   John Ross
   Mary Ross
   Sacred White Buffalo
   Satanta
   Knifewing Segura
   Sequoyah
   Eric Schweig
   Jay Silverheels
   Sitting Bull
   Squanto
   Chaske Spencer
   Standing Bear - 1834?-1908
   Rennnard Strickland
   Wes Studi
   Stumbling Bear
   Kateri Tekakwitha
   Chief Ted Thin Elk
   James (Jim) Francis Thorpe
   Lisa Lou Ella Tiger
   Gordon Tootoosis
   Monroe Tsatoke
   Two Guns White Calf
   Donald Vann
   Kateri Walker
   Nancy Ward
   Stand Watie
   W. Richard West
   Floyd "Red Crow" Westerman
   Wetamoo

Native Languages*

   Algonquian
     Algonquin
     Arapaho
     Abenaki
      Penobscot
     Alenaki
     Blackfeet
     Cheyenne
     Chippewa-Ojibwa/Ojibwe
      Ottawa
      Saulteaux
     Cree
     Delaware
     Munsee
     Unami
     Unalachtigo
    Fox
     Kickapoo
      Sac/Sauk
     Illinois
      Miami
     Massachusett
     Malecite
     Menominee
     Micmac
     Montagnais
     Munsee
     Nanticoke
     Narragansett
     Naskapi
     Passamaquoddy
     Pottawattamie
     Powhatan
     Shawnee
     Algic
      Yurok
      Wiyot
   Atakapa
   Caddoan
     Arikara
     Ouachita/Washita
     Pawnee
     Wichita
   Coastanoan
   Havasupai
   Iroquois
     Cherokee
     Iroquois
     Mohawk
     Oneida
     Tuscarora
   Karamkawa
   Kutenai
   Lutuamian
    Klamath
    Modoc
   Muskogee
     Chickasaw
     Chocataw/Choctaw/Chactaw
     Creek
      Seminole
     Mikasuki
      Seminole
   Na-Dene
    Eyak
    Haida
    Tlingit
    Athabaskin
      Apache
         Chiricahua
      Chipewyan
      Jacarilla
      Kaska
      Koyukon
      Kutchin
      Navajo
       Dine
    Nicoleño
   Numic
    Shoshone
      Comanche
      Goshute
   Oto-Manguean
    Mazatec
    Mixtec
    Otomi
    Zapotec
   Penutian
    Costanoan
    Maidu
    Miwok
    Wintu
    Yokuts
   Sahaptin
     Nez Percé
   Salishan
     Bella Coola
     Chinook
     Coeur d'Alêne
     Flatheads
     Kalispel-Pend d'Oreille
     Puyallup
     Salish
      Kootenai
   Seneca
    Cayuga
    Onandaga
    Seneca
    Tuscaroras
   Siouian
     Crow
     Dakota/Lakota/Nakota
      Assiniboin
      Brule
      Yankton
      Santee
        Mdewakanton
        Sisseton
        Wahpekute
        Wahpeton
     Hidatsa
     Iowa
     Dhegihi Siouan
       Kansa
      Omaha
      Osage
      Ponca
      Quapaw
     Pawnee
     Mandan
     Miniconju
     Ogalala
     Oto/Otoe
     Sioux
     Teton
      Hunkpapa
     Winnebago
   Toanoan
     Tewa
   Uto-Aztecan
     Bannock
     Cahuilla
     Northern Paiute
     Pagado
     Papago
     Paiute/Piute
     Pima
     Southern Paiute
     Ute (Shoshoean stock)
   Wakashan
    Kwakiutl
    Makah
   Wintun
    Patwin
   Yuman
    Maricopa
    Mohave (Mojave)
    Yavapai

   Hokan (regrouping)
     Chumash
     Pomo
     Yana
   Yuman

   Unknown
     Anasazi
     Gros Ventre
     Hopi
     Ho Chunk
     Hohokam
     Kaayellii Dine
     Miccousukee
     Kumeyaay
     Pueblo
     Tonkawa
     Tsistsistas
     Walla Walla
     Wanapam
     Yupik (Alaska)
     Yupit
     Walla Walla
     Wanapam

   More
     Abenoki
     Apoloche
     Atsinga
     Batiquitos
     Biloxi
     Chetco
     Chumash
     Colusa
     Coos
     Cusaba
     Delaware
     Gabrieling
     Huron
     Lenape
     Montagnis
     Miami
     Neskapi
     Ohlane
     Okechobee
     Ottowa
     Pennacook
     Pequot
     Pomo
     Powhatan
     Salinon
     Siuslaw
     Soriano
     Tolowa
     Wehuilteron Tribes
     Yamasee
     Yuki
     Zuni

Omaha & Neighbors

    Omaha
    Bellevue
    Council Bluffs
    Dundee
    Florence
    Papillion
    Plattsmouth
    Lincoln
    Sioux City
    Sioux Falls
    Columbus
    Grand Island
    Kearney
    Des Moines
    Ames
    Davenport
    Cedar Rapids
    Iowa City
    North Platte
    Sidney
    Scottsbluff
    Kansas City
    St. Louis

 

NE Neighbors

    Nebraska
    Iowa
    Missouri
    Kansas
    Colorado
    Wyoming
    South Dakota

Events
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Learn more.
PowWows

Each of the Pow Wow info blocks below are displayed for approximately 45 days prior and throughout the event. Some larger events with websites are displayed much earlier to help with vacation planning (as much as 60 days). Each event is outlined in a box. Some events have two different colored lines. The color of the outermost box indicates whether there is a web address for the event. The box color will be either Gold or Red. Gold is for events that have a web site. Red indicates there is no web site, so you cannot click the details to get more information. For those that do, the text and link is in lilac color, with the Gold border; the others are in light blue, with a Red border.  If the event has two border lines, the inner box line color provides more information. An additional green dashed border inside indicates the event has been canceled. An event may also be postponed. In this case, the color is a solid green color. It may be postponed for the year, or it may be rescheduled for a later date in the same year.  Occasionally, an event comes to an end permanently, although we may not have the information that informs us that is the case. For each year, each event has to be confirmed to ensure the dates are correct. If we cannot locate information that confirms an event is still going on three years in a row, there is a good change the event has ended permanently but we do not know about its demise. In that case, the inner box color will be Indian Red. You should take this into consideration if you are planning to attend one of these events.




October










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Totem pole just for decoration.

BackHomeNatives

Great Plains Native Nations

Nation Names  Back to the top of this page.

There were several Indian nations that called the Great Plains home at some point in history.  At the time of the onslaught of white man's advances, the area had been reduced to only a handful of nations.

The number of different nations having a presence in North America is astonishing to say the least.  To help demonstrate this, several nation names are listed below.  The nation names listed is not a countrywide list but more for Great Plains and the west, however, to show the connection by language family, some nations in other areas are listed.  Due to the difficulty of drawing a defining line of what the Great Plains encompassed, the list stops at the oceans, and flows over into Canada and Mexico.  Very likely, several have been left out that should have been included. If you know of a Great Plains Nation that was left out, please send the details or where I can research. The Smithsonian Institute website has a section on the American Bison, and as part of that section of their website, they have a very nice map showing the distribution of Great Plains natives. Visit the page for more details.

We know a lot about the Omaha nation due to their association with the naming of the city of Omaha and also due to their proximity to the Omaha area.  Notes for other nation names are squeamish at present.  Any knowledgeable notes would be appreciated.

 

Algonquian  Back to the top of this page.

Algonquian is not the name of a nation but is the language spoken by a large number of nations of which any member can be referred to as an Algonquian.  The Algonquian language covered a large range from Labrador, Canada to the Rocky Mountains, west southwest through Michigan and Illinois, and southward along the Atlantic Coast to Cape Hatteras, including especially  Arapaho, Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Cree, Fox, Massachusett, Micmac, Ojibwa/Ojibwe, Odawa, and Powhatan.

Apache  Back to the top of this page.

The Apache Indians are a member of the Athabaskan that lived in the southwest U. S.  Apache is used to describe several Athabaskan languages of the Arizona and Rio-Grande River basin.

During the time of the Coronado Expedition, his men met natives living on the plains of the Llano Estacado.* They were given the name Querechos by the Spanish. The Querechos term faded from use in later years. The Querechos are now understood to be Apaches and likely some Navajo natives.

Apsáalooke  Back to the top of this page.

See Crow.

Arapaho  Back to the top of this page.

The Arapaho Indians once lived in the Colorado area.  Currently, they live in Wyoming and parts of Oklahoma.  The Arapaho language belongs to the Algonquian language family.

Arikara  Back to the top of this page.

The Arikara was mainly in the northern South Dakota, west of the Missouri.  The Arikara are of Pawnee origin.  The Arikara were also known as the Ree.  The Arikara language belongs to the Caddoan language family.

The Arikara Nation joined the Hidatsa and Mandan in 1862. They are known as the Three Affiliated Tribes.

Website for the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara

Assiniboin/Assiboines (also Assinibain)  Back to the top of this page.

A member of the Siouan people of northeastern Montana and adjoining Canada.  The Assiniboin language is a dialect of the Dakota language.

Bannock  Back to the top of this page.

The Bannock lived in parts of Idaho and Wyoming.  They later merged with the Shoshone.  Most now live in southeastern Idaho.  The Bannock language belongs to the Shoshonean group of Uto-Aztecan languages.

Bedonkohe Apache  Back to the top of this page.

The Bedonkohe Apache lived in southwestern U.S. from eastern Arizona to the west south from the headwaters of the Gila River. 

The Apache leader Geronimo led an uprising in Arizona that covered a 10 year span during the period 1876-1886 when told their people would have to live on reservations.  The initial attack came as a surprise because it was not expected that he would travel that far north from inside Mexico.  Eventually things were ironed out and the disruptions settled down.

Geronimo accompanied the Kiowa Apache delegation that was represented at the 1898 Trans-Mississippi International Exposition and Indian Congress in Omaha.

Blackfeet  Back to the top of this page.

The Blackfeet (also Blackfoot and Siksiká) lived in northwestern Montana, and are a member of the Algonquian stock.  During the early years of the 19th century, the Blackfeet were a powerful nation.  Having rifles set them apart from the other nations they terrorized such as the Shoshone.  The Blackfeet nation was met by Meriwether Lewis on his excursion to the north when he and a small party separated from the remainder of the Corps of Discovery.  Both parties camped together for the night.  When told that the U.S. would be trading with the other nations, the Blackfeet were disappointed.  Lewis was awakened the next morning by a fight that broke out when the Blackfeet attempted to steal the horses and a rifle.  In the short battle, two Blackfeet were killed.*

The Blackfoot Confederacy was made up of the nations known as the Northern Peigans, Southern Peigans, Kainai, and Blackfoot.

A delegation of the Blackfeet nation was represented at the 1898 Trans-Mississippi International Exposition and Indian Congress in Omaha.

Website

Brules  Back to the top of this page.

The Brules lived in southwestern Nebraska and northeastern Colorado.  The Brules are of the Sioux nation.

Cahiksicahiks  Back to the top of this page.

The Cahiksicahiks are a member of the Pawneee group, Caddoan language speaking people that lived in western Nebraska along the Platte River.  The Caddoan language was spoken in the upper Missouri Valley from North Dakota, Nebraska, southwestern Arkansas, and nearby parts of Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Texas.  Most Cahiksicahiks now live in northern Oklahoma.

Cherokee  Back to the top of this page.

The Cherokee didn't start out being "Plains Natives"  Originally from the Alleghenies, the "Trail of Tears" is a historic reminder of the trials of the Cherokee when they were driven west by force to their new home in Oklahoma during 1838-1839.  Today, the Cherokee thrive in Oklahoma and also on the Cherokee Reservation in western North Carolina.  The Cherokee language is a derivative of the Iroquoian language.  Since 1822, the Cherokee language has been written in a syllabic script invented by the Cherokee scholar Sequoya.

Cheyenne  Back to the top of this page.

Lived in western plains in central Minnesota and North and South Dakota.  Currently living in Wyoming and Oklahoma.  The Cheyenne language belongs to the Algonquian family of languages.  Wyoming's capitol is named after the nation.

Chactaws/Choctaw  Back to the top of this page.

The Chactaws/Choctaw were a member of the Muskogee nation.  Originally of northern Mississippi but south of the Chickasaw nation.

Chickasaw/Chicasaws  Back to the top of this page.

The Chickasaw/Chicasaws were a member of the Muskogee nation.  Originally of northern Mississippi, they now live in Oklahoma.

Website

Chinook  Back to the top of this page.

Lived in central northwestern Washington around the Columbia River.  The (Chinook) language is broken into two dialects, the Upper Chinook, and Lower Chinook.  The Chinook nation was listed in the journals of the Lewis and Clark expedition.  The Chinook is a strong surviving nation to this day.  The Chinook are often associated with salmon, an important ingredient in their diet.  The Army named a helicopter after the Chinook Indians.

Chippewa   (also Ojibwa/Ojibwe)Back to the top of this page.

Chippewa is often applied to only the natives that lived mainly on the Iowa side of the Missouri that had been driven from their lands by the Dakota Sioux Indians.  In May 1846, they agreed to sell their lands to the U.S. government, and move to Northeast Kansas in 1847.  This was "deemed necessary" to make Iowa a state in December 28, 1846.  The Chippewa are also known as the Ojibwa/Ojibwe.

Choctaw  Back to the top of this page.

The Choctaw were a member of the Muskogee nation.  Originally of southern Mississippi, they now live in Oklahoma.

Clatsop  Back to the top of this page.

Lived in central western Oregon.  The Clatsop nation was listed in the journals of the Lewis and Clark expedition.  When the expedition reached the Pacific northwest, they built a fort and camped for the winter near the Clatsop.  The fort was named Fort Clatsop for the natives.  When the expedition left on March 25th, 1906, the fort was turned over to the Clatsop.

Comanche  Back to the top of this page.

The Comanche are a member of the Shoshonean nation that lived in the western edge area of the Great Plains from Wyoming to Texas.  Most now live in northern Oklahoma.  The Comanche language is a dialect of the Shoshone language, a member of the Numic language family.

Cree (Inninowuk) Back to the top of this page.

The Plains Cree lived more to the north of other central plains nations, mostly in Montana.  The Plains Cree Indians were part of the Cree nation around Hudson Bay in the eastern United States, that also lived in Ontario, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan. The Saskatchewan group also spread south into the Montana area.  The Cree in Northern Ontairo, Canada are also closely related/associated with the Ojibway (Ojibwe) and Oji-Cree. The Montagnais were closely related to the Cree.  The language of both falls under the Algonquian family of languages.

The Cree are mentioned on the Native history page in a section about horses, as a passage from John C. Ewers book Plains Indian History and Culture: Essays on Continuity and Change.

You can learn how the word "Cree" came about from a 3 minute podcast clip about the language at We call ourselves Nehiyaw.

Creek  Back to the top of this page.

The Creek nation started in Georgia and Alabama but are now located in Oklahoma.  The nation is also called Muskogee since the language spoken is of the Muskogean family of languages.

Crow  Back to the top of this page.

The Crow (aka, Apsáalooke) lived in eastern Montana and western North Dakota.  The Crow traveled over a large portion of the Great Plains as they were a strong and prosperous member of the Siouan people.  A delegation of the nation was represented at the 1898 Trans-Mississippi International Exposition and Indian Congress in Omaha.

Flathead  Back to the top of this page.

The Flatheads are a member of the Salishan Indians that lived in northern Montana, northern Idaho and parts of northern Wyoming.  The Chinook living near the Columbia River are also called Flathead.  The Flathead get their name from the habit of flattening their heads in order to enhance their beauty by compressing it between two boards.  The effect gives a sloping forehead lining up with the slope of the nose.  This had to be done during the youth years while the body is still growing.  The Lewis and Clark expedition met the Flathead on their way to the Pacific northwest.  Some were described as wearing clothing made from the cedar tree bark and even blue jackets traded for sea otter pelts from ships traveling up the Columbia River.

A delegation of the nation was represented at the 1898 Trans-Mississippi International Exposition and Indian Congress in Omaha.

Fox  Back to the top of this page.

The Fox and Sac Indian Reservation is located at the southeastern tip of Nebraska.  The Fox language is from the Algonquian family of languages.  See additional information at Sac.  A delegation of the nation was represented at the 1898 Trans-Mississippi International Exposition and Indian Congress in Omaha.

Goshute  Back to the top of this page.

Lived in central Utah.  The Skull Valley Band of Goshute natives is located in the west desert of Tooele County. They are part of the larger Shoshonean-speaking Native American groups that lived in the Intermountain West.

Gros Ventre  Back to the top of this page.

The Gros Ventre are the Mandan and Hidatsa nations that Lewis and Clark met in North Dakota.

Hidatsa  Back to the top of this page.

Lived in North Dakota on the west side of the Missouri in the central area.  The Hidatsa are a member of the Siouan people.  The Hidatsa were severely devastated by the smallpox epidemic of 1837/1838. Even though their loss was not as much as the Mandan, the Hidatsa joined with the Mandan to live in close proximity onward. Even though the Hidatsa likely migrated to this location from the Northeast, they did adopt the culture of the Mandan, and remained close allies onward.

The new affiliated group moved from the mouth of the Knife River to near Fort Berthold, named after Bartholomew Berthold (Tyrolean). The fort was run by the American Fur Company.

The Arikara/Arickara Nation joined the Hidatsa and Mandan in 1862. They are known as the Three Affiliated Tribes.

The Hidatsa nation was listed in the journals of the Lewis and Clark expedition.  This is where Sacagawea joined the expedition.  She had been kidnapped from the Shoshone.  The Hidatsa had a reputation for decimating nearly 75% of other nations by kidnapping.  The Hidatsa survive to this day but no longer strengthen their numbers by kidnapping.

Website for the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara

Hunkpapa  Back to the top of this page.

The Hunkpapa were a branch of the Sioux Native Americans.  The Hunkpapa Sioux led by Sitting Bull defeated Custer at Little Big Horn in 1876 (near the juncture of the Little Big Horn River and Big Horn River in Wyoming).

Illinois  Back to the top of this page.

The Illinois natives lived in Illinois and to the adjoining areas west of Illinois.  The Illinois language was also used as the language of the Miami stock; it falls into the Algonquian family of languages.

Several groups made up the Illinois; among them, the Cahokia, Tamaroa, Kaskaskia, Michigamea, and Peoria, collectively known as the Illiniwek or “ih-LYNN-o-ah.” that later evolved into Illinois by the French settlers.

Iowa/Ayoway/Aiawuay  Back to the top of this page.

The state of Iowa is named after the Iowa Indian nation, not because they were predominant at the time but due to their contribution of Iowa history beforehand.  The Iowa nation lived in parts of Minnesota, Iowa, and Missouri.  Now, most live in Oklahoma, Nebraska, and Kansas.  The Iowa Indian's language is a dialect of the Siouan language.

Iroquois  Back to the top of this page.

The Iroquois referred to themselves as hodenosaunee (people of the longhouse).

The Iroquois were a member of an Indian confederacy known as the Iroquois confederacy.  It was made up of Five nations, consisting of the Mohawks (Mahician*/Mohican), Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas.  Later, the Tuscaroras joined.  Together they formed a powerful group of natives.  The languages of the nation members fell into the Iroquois or Seneca family.

Isatis  Back to the top of this page.

Same as Santee, an Eastern division of the Dakota Indians.

Jacarilla  Back to the top of this page.

The Jacarilla natives lived in southern Colorado and northern New Mexico but now live in southwestern New Mexico.  The languages of the nation members fell into the Athabaskan family.

Kansa  Back to the top of this page.

"People of the South Wind," and adopted by the state of Kansas.  The Kansa nation lived in the eastern Kansas.  Most now live in northern Oklahoma.  The Kansa language is a dialect of the Dhegiha Siouan language.  Their dialect is also called Kaw.

Karankawa  Back to the top of this page.

The heavily tattooed Karankawa lived in southeastern Texas near Galveston, until the mid 1800s but are extinct now.  They also occupied San Padre Island during the final years.  The Karankawa are one of the few native North American nations that practiced cannibalism.  A story goes that in 1553, they decimated the survivors (approximately 300 men, women, and children) of a Spanish fleet that ended up in the area.  Their numbers declined rapidly as a result of diseases contracted from Europeans.  One story goes that the Karankawa were driven to the southern end of San Padre Island and the small number remaining, burned their possessions before committing suicide as their final departure.  The Karankawa language is a unique language.

Kaska  Back to the top of this page.

The Kaska lived in southern Yukon to northern British Columbia.  The Kaska language falls into the Athabaskan family.

Kickapoo  Back to the top of this page.

The Kickapoo nation lived in the central plains.  See Fox for additional info.

Kiowa Apache  Back to the top of this page.

The Plains Apache a/k/a/ Kiowa Apache lived in southwestern U.S. and may have reached northwestern Colorado and Nebraska.  The Kiowan language is closely related to the Tanoan language spoken by nations of the southwest such as the Tewa.

A delegation of the nation was represented at the 1898 Trans-Mississippi International Exposition and Indian Congress in Omaha.

Klamath  Back to the top of this page.

The Klamath nation lived in southern Oregon during the time of the Lewis and Clark Expedition.  They belong to the Lutuamian stock of North American natives.

Kootenai  Back to the top of this page.

The Kootenai nation stretches from Montana and Idaho to British Columbia.  They belong to the Flathead stock of North American natives. The Kootenai language is a unique language but is thought that it may be distantly related to the Salish languages.

Koyukon  Back to the top of this page.

The Koyukon lived in west-central Alaska in the Yukon River valley.  The Koyukon weren't plains natives but their language falls into the Athabaskan language, which extends from Alaska to the southern parts of the United States, an indication of the great influence and possibly how the nations happened to cover such a range.  Their language is also known as Tena.

Kutchin  Back to the top of this page.

The Kutchin nation lived in northwestern Canada (in the region of the lower Mackenzie River) and northeastern Alaska (in the region of the Yukon and Porcupine Rivers).  The Kutchin language falls under the Athabaskan language family.

Kutenai  Back to the top of this page.

The Kutenai nation lived in Montana, Idaho, and British Columbia.  The Kutenai used a unique language.

Lakota  Back to the top of this page.

The Lakota nation is also known as the Sioux nation (also Teton).  The most famous Lakota, Crazy Horse, has been carved into the side of a South Dakota mountain.  The Crazy Horse Memorial is a major tourist attraction for South Dakota.

Loup  Back to the top of this page.

The Loups are known as the Skeeree/Skiri Pawnee.  The Loup language belongs to the Caddoan language family.

Lumbee  Back to the top of this page.

The Lumbee are of Cheraw and the Siouan stock of North American Natives.  The Lumbee, located in Robeson County, Hoke, and Scotland counties in North Carolina, numbering 40,000 are the largest nation east of the Mississippi River.

Website
Website

Maidu  Back to the top of this page.

The Maidu lived in northern California.  The Maidu language belongs to the Penutian language family.

Mandan  Back to the top of this page.

The Mandan are members of the Siouan natives.  The Mandan nation was listed in the journals of the Lewis and Clark expedition, who encountered them in North Dakota on the west side of the Missouri in the southern area.  The expedition built their first fortified quarters to stay the winter of 1804/05 nearby.  The fort was named after the Mandan nation.  The city of Mandan is near Bismarck, North Dakota.

Lived in North Dakota on the west side of the Missouri in the central area.  The Mandan are a member of the Siouan people.  The Mandan were severely devastated by the smallpox epidemic of 1837/1838. Their loss was much more than the Hidatsa, the groups joined to live in close proximity onward.

The new affiliated group moved from the mouth of the Knife River to near Fort Berthold, named after Bartholomew Berthold (Tyrolean). The fort was run by the American Fur Company.

The Arikara Nation joined the Hidatsa and Mandan in 1862. They are known as the Three Affiliated Tribes.

Website for the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara

Massachusett  Back to the top of this page.

The Massachusett lived far from the Great Plains Natives in eastern Massachusetts, now extinct.  The Massachusett language is a member of the Algonquian family of languages (Algic language Family).  It was used by the Massachusett nation, and a dialect of the language was used by the Wampanoag nation.  Natick is a dialect of the Massachusett language and often referred to as a nation.

Mdewakanton  Back to the top of this page.

A member of the Santee branch of the Dakota Indians.

Melungeon  Back to the top of this page.

A member of the people consisting of white, black, and American native ancestry living in the southern Appalachians.

Menominee  Back to the top of this page.

A member of the American native people living in northern Wisconsin.  The Menominee language is of the East Algonquian language family.

Miami  Back to the top of this page.

The Miami American native people lived in northern Indiana, southern Michigan, and possibly parts of Illinois.  The nation is now extinct.  The Miami language is a dialect of the Illinois language.

Micmac  Back to the top of this page.

The Micmac lived far from the Great Plains Natives mostly in Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island.  The Micmac language is a member of the Algonquian family of languages.

Miniconjou  Back to the top of this page.

The Miniconjou lived in Nebraska, Wyoming, and South Dakota.  They are a member of the Teton branch of the Dakota people.

Missouri  Back to the top of this page.

The Missouri natives were of Siouan stock and lived along the Missouri but are extinct as a nation now.  Their language was Chiwere Siouan.

Mohawk  Back to the top of this page.

The Mohawk (Mahician)* natives are not of the Iroquois stock, however, they did join what is known as the Iroquois Confederacy, which led many to believe they were of the same people.  The Mohawk have an unprecedented history of conflict with the United States.  Today, those issues are mostly resolved, yet some still remain.  The Mohawk "warriors" are famous for their method of cropping their hair on the sides, leaving a longer growth along the top of the head.  It is the hairstyle that many a youth wanted but were not allowed to have.  It seems appropriate that the "Mohawk" hairstyle has become synonymous with rebellion in youth culture.*  One large group of Mohawk is known as the Haudenosaunee.

"Great Spirit, Maker of All Life. A warrior goes to you swift and straight as an arrow shot into the sun. Welcome him and let him take his place at the council fire of my people. He is Uncas, my son. Tell them to be patient and ask death for speed; for they are all there but one - I, Chingachgook - Last of the Mohicans."

Muskogee  Back to the top of this page.

The Muskogee was once part of the Creek Confederacy of Georgia and Alabama.  The nation now lives in Oklahoma.  The Muskogean language family also includes Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, and several other minor languages.

Nakota  Back to the top of this page.

The Nakota are also known as the Santee

Nanabinenan/Nankhaanseinenan  Back to the top of this page.

The Nanabinenan/Nankhaanseinenan (sagebrush people) were a division of the Arapahoe in Wyoming and Colorado.

Narragansett  Back to the top of this page.

A member of the Algonquian family of North American Natives once living in Rhode Island but nearly extinct currently.  A town in Rhode Island is named after the nation, also known as Narragansett Bay.

The Navajo (Diné)live in Arizona and New Mexico.  They are the largest surviving nation of North American Natives.  The Navajo language is a dialect of the Athabaskan family of languages.  During World War II, in order to deceive the Japanese, Navajo troops were used as communications specialists.  The Japanese were not familiar with the Navajo language and so when the code used to send the message was broken, it resulted in a message that still could not be understood.  The Navajo contribution was finally recognized with an award in 2001 and the movie Windtalkers in 2002.

During the time of the Coronado Expedition, his men met natives living on the plains of the Llano Estacado.* They were given the name Querechos by the Spanish. The Querechos term faded from use in later years. The Querechos are now understood to be Apaches and likely some Navajo natives.

Nez Percé  Back to the top of this page.

A member of the Sahaptin family, the Nez Percé nation lived in the Columbia River basin.  The Nez Percé nation was listed in the journals of the Lewis and Clark expedition.  The nation name "Nee-Poo" means "The People" but was misunderstood by Clark to mean pierced nose.  When the expedition reached the Nez Percé camp, the natives were starving but well armed.  The nation leaders discussed what they should do with the expedition.  They even considered killing them and throwing them over a cliff in order to have the best rifles in the land.  One elder woman had been kidnapped years earlier by a different nation, and then sold to the white people from whom she had escaped and made it back home.  She sent a message to nation leaders to treat them well as the white people had treated her well.  The expedition was fed but got sick from not being experienced in eating camus root.

On the journey back from the Pacific Ocean, the expedition visited the Nez Percé again.  They ran races and played games.  The nation taught them a game played with a stick and a ball called 'base' [Ed: hmmm].  Again the expedition needed supplies, namely horses.  The leader furnished them with horses but refused payment.  He proclaimed that the Nez Percé would always be friendly and never engage in war with the white man.  When you see a Nez Percé, give him a horse.

Years later (1840-1904), Chief Joseph, the famous Nez Percé leader repeated the proclamation that the Nez Percé would never engage in war with the white people.  It was the white people that told the natives to live on reservations.  Chief Joseph also had a comment.  To see, move the mouse pointer over the name under Chief Joseph's picture.

Nuxalk  Back to the top of this page.

The Nuxalk nation lived nowhere near the plains; they lived in the very western part of North America.  They are listed here due to their great contribution to history.  When The British explorer Alexander MacKenzie was seeking a passage to the Pacific, he attempted a land route instead of staying on the river he was on (Snake River) as a result of a suggestion by another native nation.  After days of not reaching the Pacific, he encountered the Naxalt on July 17, 1793, who gave him a canoe to continue downstream.  And as a result, three days later history was made (he made it to the Pacific).

Oglala/Ogallala  Back to the top of this page.

The Oglala/Ogallala nation lived in western Wyoming and Montana.  They are a member of the Teton branch of the Dakota (Sioux) Indians.

There are seven Bands of the Oglala Lakota: Ite Sica, Kiyaksa, Oyukpe, Payabaya, Tapisleca, Wagluhe, and Wazaza.

Famous Ogallala Sioux: Crazy Horse.

Ojibwa/Ojibwe/Ojibway (also Chippewa)  Back to the top of this page.

Although the Ojibwa/Ojibwe was originally a small local group, the term was adopted or used to apply eventually to a large group of North American natives.  The Ojibwa/Ojibwe nation lived in Canada and the U.S. from Lake Huron and Superior west to North Dakota, and also covered parts of Saskatchewan.  The Ojibwa language is also used by the Algonquian and Ottawa natives.  The Ojibwa are also known as the Chippewa.  Most in the United States live in Minnesota currently.

Omaha  Back to the top of this page.

See Omaha Nation page

Oneida  Back to the top of this page.

The Oneida nation live in Oneida County in New York state.  Oneida County is where the Oneida Nation has called home since the beginning.  Once covering a larger area, the Oneida are now centered in Oneida County.  As part of the Iroquois Confederacy/Haudenosaunee Confederacy (or Haudenosaunee as the Oneida prefer), the Oneida nation were influential to the early colonists.  The Oneida nation fought in the Revolutionary War on the side of the colonists, the first to join, and as a result, breaking them off from the Confederacy, who allied themselves with the British.  You can read more of their interesting history on their website.

Website

Onondagas  Back to the top of this page.

The Onondagas natives are not of the Iroquois stock, however, they did join what is known as the Iroquois Confederacy/Haudenosaunee Confederacy, which led many to believe they were of the same people.  The Onondagas still thrive today.

Osage  Back to the top of this page.

A member of  the Siouan family.  The Osage lived in the eastern portion of the Great Plains, covering parts of western Missouri.  Most now live in northern Oklahoma.  The Dhegiha Siouan language was used by the Osage.

Oto/Otoe/Otteauz/Otteauze/Ottu  Back to the top of this page.

Either Chiwere Siouan or Dhegiha Siouan speaking natives that lived on the southern side of the Platte River in the eastern part of Nebraska near Omaha.  The Oto Indians met with the Lewis and Clark Expedition party near Ft. Calhoun on August 2, 1804.  The Lewis and Clark Expedition party's journals used the spelling Zottoe and Zotous.  The nation name is now more commonly referred to as the Ottoe nation.  Nebraska has a county and town named Ottoe in the south eastern part of the state near where the Otoe natives lived.  Most of the Oto/Otoe natives now live in Red Rock, Oklahoma.

Ottawa  Back to the top of this page.

A member of the Algonquian Indians of Canada that were forced into the Lake Superior and Lake Michigan regions by the Iroquois confederacy.  When white settlement of the Great Plains started, they lived mainly on the Iowa side of the Missouri having been driven from their lands by the Dakota Sioux Indians.  In May 1846, they agreed to sell their lands to the U.S. government and move to Northeast Kansas in 1847.  This was necessary to make Iowa a state in December 28, 1846.  The Ottawa natives use the Ojibwa/Ojibwe language.

Paiute  Back to the top of this page.

A member of the Uto-Aztecan Indians of the Great Basin that lived in what is now southwestern Utah.  The Paiute natives now live in Oklahoma, southern Nevada, northern Arizona, and southeastern California.

Pawnee/Ponie  Back to the top of this page.

The Pawnee are a member of the Caddoan language speaking people that lived in western Nebraska along the Platte River.  The Caddoan language was spoken in the upper Missouri Valley from North Dakota, Nebraska, southwestern Arkansas, and nearby parts of Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Texas.  Most Pawnee now live in northern Oklahoma.

Pend O'reille/Pend d'Oreille  Back to the top of this page.

The Pend O'reille/Pend d'Oreille (French meaning: hangs from ears), were centered around Lake Pend Oreille (named after the natives), but they also lived in Montana and east Washington state. They are related to the Flathead nation. Lake Pend Oreille is located in the panhandle of Idaho, near the northernmost end. The Pend O'reille/Pend d'Oreille native's connection to the water is exhibited in their culture, one by wearing shells that hang from their ears, which is the basis for how they got their name. The nation is also known as the Kalispel. The Pend d'Oreille are part of the (three) Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation. The Kalispel-Pend d'Oreille language belongs to the Salishan family of languages and is spoken on the Flathead Reservation in Montana.

Ponca  Back to the top of this page.

The Ponca lived North and west of Omaha.  Most Ponca now live in northern Oklahoma.  The Dhegiha Siouan language of the Ponca nation is mutually intelligible with the Omaha, who lived nearby.  There are enough differences in cultures that the two languages are considered by some to be distinct languages, however, most agree that the Omaha-Ponca dialect is the same since there are no known linguistic differences.  The differences that one nation hears that is different from the other is similar to the difference between Bostonians and New Yorkers, both speaking the same language but differently.  Similar to how a non-English speaking person may recognize that the language is English, but not where the speaker is from.  There are differences in the meanings of words between the two nations due to living in slightly different locations. Therefore, meanings of words referencing local culture might be different for the two nations.  If interested, you may find a discussion on the language at the Omaha-Ponca Language Website.

The most significant bit of Ponca history is the story of Standing Bear, known historically as the "Trial of Standing Bear," that took place in Omaha (Fort Omaha) in 1879, in which the U.S. Government decided that Native Americans should be legally considered persons, with equal rights, the same as other citizens of this land. The Standing Bear marker on Fort Omaha commemorates the historic event.

Pottawattamie/Potawatomi(Pot-a-wat-o-mi)  Back to the top of this page.

A member of the Algonquian native people.  Initially originating around the Great Lakes area, were pushed away by British armed Iroquois to Wisconsin area. The Dakota Sioux Indians from Michigan and Wisconsin persuaded most to move further west or south. Relinquishing most lands in the 1933 Treaty of Chicago, forcing the group to splinter up into groups that moved into Canada, most to lands in the state of Missouri, and few that remained in the surrounding area. When Missouri lands were annexed in 1837, another split occurred with some moving into Kansas, and some moving to the Iowa side of the Missouri River, around the Council Bluffs.  In May-July 1846, agreed to sell their lands to the U.S. government and move to Northeast Kansas in 1847, near the other half that had moved to Kansas in 1837.  The sale of lands in Iowa was necessary to make Iowa a state in December 28, 1846.  At the time, Council Bluffs (in Pottawattamie County) was known as Miller's Hollow but soon became known as Kane, and then Kanesville before becoming known as Council Bluffs.  When county lines were drawn up, the county surrounding Council Bluffs was named Pottawattamie.

The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 made the Kansas lands available for advancing settlers, even with the natives still living there. In 1867, the Kansas groups were split again, with some becoming U.S. Citizens (and remaining in Kansas), and those preferring ancestral ways were forced to move to near Shawnee, Oklahoma. The Potawatomi now live in Canada, Michigan (Pokagon Band, and Hannaville Potowatami), Wisconsin (Huron Band, and Forest County Band), Kansas (Prairie Band), Oklahoma (Citizen Band), and a few other isolated places (Pokagen).

Famous Potawatomi: Woodrow "Woody" Wilson Crumbo

Potawatomi (Oklahoma)

Potawatomi (Prairie Band)

Powhatan  Back to the top of this page.

Powhatan is not the name of a nation.  A Powhatan is a member of a network of Algonquian speaking settlements in Virginia founded and ruled by Chief Powhatan and called the Powhatan Confederacy.  Chief Powhatan (1550-1618) was the father of Pocahontas.  A Chicahominy is a member of the Powhatan Confederacy.

Pueblo  Back to the top of this page.

The Pueblo Indians includes several nations such as the Tewa that were pueblo dwelling.  They lived in Arizona, New Mexico, and southern Colorado since ancient times.  The pueblo were a very agricultural people with sophisticated farming and irrigation fed fields.

The villages they lived in are also called pueblos built of adobe or stone.  The pueblo village was generally built against cliff walls, terraced to form several levels.  Ladders were used to gain access to upper levels, and to enter and exit the multiple dwelling individual rooms through the roof.  The construction was very effective for protection against attacks.

A delegation of the nation was represented at the 1898 Trans-Mississippi International Exposition and Indian Congress in Omaha.

Colorado has a city named Pueblo.

Website

Quapaw  Back to the top of this page.

The Quapaw are part of the Dhegiha Siouan group of natives, which also includes the Omaha, Osage, Ponca, and Kansa peoples.

Quivira  Back to the top of this page.

The Quivirans name comes from the Coronado Expedition, a people he found that lived along the Arkansas River in Kansas. Francisco Vásquez de Coronado was in search of Quivira, hence the name. The Quivirans are considered likely ancestors of the Wichita people.

Republican  Back to the top of this page.

The Republican are known as the Kitkahahki Pawnee.  The Republican language belongs to the Caddoan language family.

Sac (also Sauk)  Back to the top of this page.

The Sac did not live in Bellevue as the name would imply.  Originally from Wisconsin and northern Iowa.  A member of the Algonquian native people, the Sac and Fox merged.  The Fox language is the language of the Fox, Sauk, and Kickapoo nations.  The Fox and Sac Indian Reservation is located at the southeastern tip of Nebraska.

The Black Hawk War of 1831-32 was fought in Illinois and southern Wisconsin, in which the U.S. regulars and militia with Indian allies defeated the Fox and Sauk Indians led by Chief Black Hawk, who were attempting to recover lost hunting grounds.

A delegation of the nation was represented at the 1898 Trans-Mississippi International Exposition and Indian Congress in Omaha.

Famous Sauk: Black Hawk

Sahaptin  Back to the top of this page.

A member of the American Indian people of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho.  Also the name of the language spoken by several nations, including the Nez Percés, of the Columbia River basin.

Santee  Back to the top of this page.

The Santee are a branch of the Dakota Indians consisting of the Mdewakanton, Sisseton, Wahpekute, and Wahpeton natives.  The 18,000 acre Santee Indian Reservation is located at Niobrara in northeastern Nebraska, near the western edge of Lewis and Clark Lake that separates Nebraska and South Dakota.  Known as the Nakota, the reservation population is approximately 600 natives.

Santee Website

Sarsi  Back to the top of this page.

The Sarsi lived in the western portion of the Great Plains.

Sauk (also Sac)  Back to the top of this page.

The Sauk lived in Parts of Wisconsin and Iowa.  Most currently live in northern Oklahoma.  The Sauk language is a dialect of the Fox language, a member of the Algonquian family of languages.

Seminole  Back to the top of this page.

The Seminole, a member of the Muskogean family (branch of Creek), only existed in Florida until they were driven to Oklahoma in the later part of the 19th century.  They now live in Oklahoma and Florida.  Seminole as a language can refer to two languages, a dialect of the Creek language, or Mikasuki.  Both nation branches make up the Seminole.

Seneca  Back to the top of this page.

The Seneca natives are not of the Iroquois stock, however, they did join what is known as the Iroquois Confederacy, which led many to believe they were of the same people.  The Seneca still thrive today.  The Seneca have a thriving nation today.

Shawnee  Back to the top of this page.

The Shawnee are of the Algonquian stock of North American natives of the east central U.S.  Most now live in Oklahoma.  Both Oklahoma and Kansas have a city named after the nation.  Chief Tecumseh was the leader of the Shawnee nation during the time of the Lewis and Clark Expedition.  Tecumseh, Nebraska is named after the chief.

Shoshone (also Shoshoni)  Back to the top of this page.

A member of the Numic-speaking people that lived in California, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, and Idaho.  The Shoshone lived mainly in southern Idaho.

Also related to the Shoshone are the Bannock, the Comanche, and the Ute.

The Shoshone River (120 miles, 193 km) is in NW Wyoming and flows NE into the Big Horn River.

The most famous Shoshone, Sacagawea was kidnapped as a young girl, and then raised by the Hidatsa nation of North Dakota.  Sacagawea was from the Lemhi band of Shoshone.  The Shoshone living in Idaho where Sacagawea was born are referred to as the Agaidika Shoshone people.

Sioux  Back to the top of this page.

The Sioux nation was one of the most populous nations, and ruled the Great Plains with their numbers from the Dakotas south to the central Great Plains and Midwest.  The Sioux are the largest member of the Siouan stock native people.    They originally lived in Minnesota and Wisconsin but migrated west to the Dakota territory.  The heart of Sioux territory was in the South Dakota Badlands and Black Hills area, which they referred to as the center of the universe.  The Sioux were so far spread there are prefixes to designate the locale, for example, Santee Sioux, Hunkpapa Sioux, Oglala Sioux, Lakota Sioux, etc.  The people of these locales do not necessarily prefer to have the word Sioux attached however.

The word Sioux is from Nadouessioux.  As I understand it, it was a French corruption of an Objiway word.

The language of the Sioux is also spoken by the Assiniboin Indians.

A delegation of the nation was represented at the 1898 Trans-Mississippi International Exposition and Indian Congress in Omaha.

Cheyenne River Lakota Nation Sioux Website

Sisseton  Back to the top of this page.

A member of the Santee branch of the Dakota Indians.

Sisseton Website

Skeeree/Skiri/Loup  Back to the top of this page.

The Skeeree are known as the Loup Pawnee.  The Skeeree language belongs to the Caddoan language family.

Tonkawa  Back to the top of this page.

The Tonkawa lived in the northern parts of Nebraska on up into Canada.  I think the Tonkawa nation prospered, and eventually developed their own toy truck company.*  A delegation of the nation was represented at the 1898 Trans-Mississippi International Exposition and Indian Congress in Omaha.

Teton  Back to the top of this page.

The Tetons were part of the Sioux nation.  They lived in the Sioux homeland of the badlands of South Dakota, west of the Missouri, and in the central southern half.

The "Grand Tetons" in Wyoming are named after this native nation.

Tewa  Back to the top of this page.

The Tewa were pueblo dwelling people of southwestern U.S. The Tewa language is of the Tanoan language family.

Tuscaroras  Back to the top of this page.  Nation Link

The Tuscaroras were a member of an Indian confederacy known as the Iroquois confederacy.  It was made up of Five nations, consisting of the Mohawks (Mahician*/Mohican), Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas.  Later, the Tuscaroras joined.  Together they formed a powerful group of natives.  The languages of the nation members fell into the Iroquois or Seneca family.  The Tuscaroras have a thriving nation today.

Ute  Back to the top of this page.

The Ute lived in Wyoming, and was an important nation of the Shoshonean stock of North American natives.  The remaining Ute live in Colorado and Utah (named after the Ute).  The Ute language is of the Uto-Aztecan family of languages.

Bands included: Capote, Corn Creek, Deep Creek, Grand River, Muache, San Pete, Spanish Fork, Tabeguachee, Uintah, Uncompahgre, Weeminughi, and Yampa.

At one point, the Ute controlled over 23 million acres of land in the Rocky Mountains.

Chief Ouray of the Ute Nation (of Colorado) is one of the more common known Ute of historical significance. He was the leader of the Ute during negotiations to acquire Ute land. He traveled to Washington, D.C., and even met Presidents Rutherford B. Hayes and Ulysses S. Grant.

Ouray and Ouray County, Colorado are named after Chief Ouray of the Ute Nation (of Colorado).

The second largest Native American Reservation (over 4.5 million acres) is known as the Uintah and Ouray reservation. It is in Northeastern Utah (aka, Fort Duchesne), approximately 150 miles east of Salt Lake City, Utah on US Highway 40. The reservation spreads over three counties, known as the "Uintah Basin."

Ute website

Utah Indians website

Wahashaw  Back to the top of this page.

Santee band of the Mdewakanton Sioux/Dakota Indians living in a village on upper Iowa River.

Wahpekute  Back to the top of this page.

A member of the Santee branch of the Dakota Indians.

Wahpeton  Back to the top of this page.

A member of the Santee branch of the Dakota Indians.

Walla Walla  Back to the top of this page.

Lived in central southeast Washington near the Snake River and Sacajawea River.  The Walla Walla nation was listed in the journals of the Lewis and Clark expedition.

Wampanoag  Back to the top of this page.

A member of the once powerful North American native people who inhabited the area east of the Narragansett Bay from Rhode island to Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, and Nantucket at the time of the early pilgrim settlements.

King (Metacomet) Phillip (?-1676) was a great chief of the Wampanoag nation, the sachem leader of the Indians in King Phillip's War against colonist in 1675-1676.  His son, Massosoit, was the negotiator of the treaty with the pilgrims in 1621.

The Wampanoag language was a dialect of the Massachusett language.

Wanapam  Back to the top of this page.

Lived in central eastern Washington near the Snake River.  The Wanapam nation was listed in the journals of the Lewis and Clark expedition.

Washoe  Back to the top of this page.

Lives in California and Nevada, around Carson Valley and Eagle Valley.

Wichita  Back to the top of this page.

The Wichita nation lived in the eastern plains area of Kansas, covering the area around present day Wichita, Kansas.  The Wichita Indians were relocated to Oklahoma following the Civil War.  The Wichita Indians use the Caddoan language.

Winnebago  Back to the top of this page.

The Winnebago lived around Green Bay, Wisconsin, and continue to do so.  They now, also live in Northeast Nebraska and parts of  northern Iowa.  Their language is closely related to the Assiniboin, Teton, and Mandan languages.

Nebraska has a town named Winnebago on the Winnebago Reservation in Northeast Nebraska.  Approximately 1200 live on the 27,000 acre reservation.  The nation also operates the Winnavegas Casino in Sloan, Iowa, just across the river from the reservation.  The casino has contributed tremendously to the community.  In 1990, the discretionary funds amounted to $150,000, comparable to many communities of similar size, except the unemployment rate was 70%.  With help from the casino, the community has been revitalized.  Employment is now down to 20%, and the discretionary funds has jumped to an incredible $50 million.  Some of that money came from me but every bit from the $7.95 prime rib dinners.  I think my friends contributed a considerable amount more though.

Trivia: The Winnebago Recreational Vehicle is manufactured in Iowa.

The Winnebago Nation website has wonderful information about the nation, their history, and attractions.

The Little Priest Tribal College website has a great list of links to learn more about the Winnebago Nation and the Mayan Connection.

Yanktons  Back to the top of this page.

The Yanktons were part of the great Sioux nation.  The Yanktons as the name might imply are from the southeastern South Dakota area.  As most nations, they migrated, and some made it into parts of Nebraska and Iowa.  Approximately 6,500 live on the 56,676 acre reservation at Macy on the northern shore of Lewis and Clark Lake in South Dakota.  The Fort Randall Casino operated by the nation is a popular tourist spot.

Famous Yankton: Gertrude Simmons Bonnin

Yavapai/Yavapata  Back to the top of this page.

The Yavapata are southwestern natives of Arizona.  The Yavapati language is from the Yuman language family.

External Links  Back to the top of this page.

Our website pertains to Great Plains Natives. Rather than attempt to maintain a full list of other Native American websites, we refer you to some that have done a marvelous job.



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